Blocks of DNA gyrase (topoisomerase II) and topoisomerase IV, gives supercoiling and crosslink DNA breaks, inhibits DNA synthesis, causes profound morphological change in the cytoplasm, the cell wall and membranes.
Levofloxacin is active against the following strains of microorganisms in conditions in vitro, so ., and in vivo
sensing microorganisms (MIC <2 mg / ml). Aerobic gram-positive microorganisms: Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus spp, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus coagulase-negative methi-S (J) (methicillin-sensitive / moderately sensitive strains. ), Staphylococcus aureus methi-S (methicillin-susceptible strains), Staphylococcus epidermidis methi-S (methicillin-susceptible strains), Staphylococcus spp. (CNs – leykotoksinsoderzhaschie ;. Streptococci Group C and G (including, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pneumoniae peni- S / UR ( penicillin sensitive / moderately sensitive / resistant strains)), Streptococcus pyogenes, Viridans streptococci peni-S / R ( . penicillin-sensitive / resistant strains) Aerobic gram-negative microorganisms: Acinetobacter baumannil, Acinetobacter spp, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Citrobacter freundii, Eikenella corrodens, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter agglomerans, Enterobacter spp (including, Enterobacter cloacae), Escherichia coli, Anaerobic microorganisms: Bacteroides jragilis, Bifidobacterium spp, Clostridium perfringens, Fusobacterium spp, Peptostreptococcus spp, Propionibacterum spp, Veilonella spp….. Other organisms: Bartonella spp, Chlamydia pneumoniae. , Chlamydia psittaci, Chlamydia trachomatis, Legionella pneumophila, Legionella spp., Mycobacterium spp. (including, Mycobacterium leprae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae), Ricketsia spp, Ureaplasma urealyticum.. moderately sensitive microorganisms (MIC> 4 mg / l): Aerobic Gram-positive microorganisms: Corynebacterium urealiticum, Corynebacterium xerosis, Enterococcus faecium, . Staphylococcus epidermidis methi-R (for methicillin-resistant strains), Staphylococcus haemolyticus methi-R (for methicillin-resistant strains)Aerobic gram-negative microorganisms: Burkholderia primobolan only cycle cepacia, Campilobacter jejuni, Campilobacter coli. Aerobic gram-negative microorganisms: . xylosoxidans of Alcaligenes Other microorganisms: of Mycobacterium avium.
When administered quickly and almost completely absorbed (eating little effect on the speed and completeness of removals).
It penetrates the tissues and organs: lungs, bronchial mucosa, sputum, organs of the urogenital system, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, alveolar macrophages. In the liver, a small part of the oxidized and / or deacetylated.
Infectious-inflammatory diseases of mild to moderate severity caused by pathogens susceptible to the drug:
- infection of upper respiratory tract (acute sinusitis);
- infections of the lower respiratory tract (exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, community-acquired pneumonia);
- Skin and soft tissue infections;
- in the complex treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis;
- complicated infections of the kidneys and urinary tract infections, including pyelonephritis;
- uncomplicated urinary tract infections;
- septicemia / bacteremia associated with the above indications;
- intra-abdominal infections.
- hypersensitivity to levofloxacin or other quinolones;
- tendon lesions associated with taking a history of quinolones;
- childhood and adolescence to 18 years;
- lactation (breastfeeding).
Advanced age (a high probability of the presence of a concomitant decrease in renal function), deficiency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase.
After hemodialysis or continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis does not require administration of additional doses. Application for violations of liver function If abnormal liver function does not require a special selection of doses, because Levofloxacin is metabolized in the liver slightly. The duration of treatment, depending on the course of the disease, is not more than 14 days. As with other antibiotics, treatment with Levolet ® P is recommended to continue for at least 48-72 hours after normalization of body temperature or after reliable primobolan only cycle eradication of the pathogen.
The incidence of side effects is classified depending on the frequency of occurrence of cases: frequent (1-10: 100), occasionally (less than 1: 100), rare (less than 1: 1000), very rarely (less than 1:10 000) in . some cases the part of the system of blood and of blood: sometimes – eosinophilia, leukopenia; rarely – neutropenia, thrombocytopenia; very rarely – agranulocytosis pronounced; in some cases – hemolytic anemia, pancytopenia. From the digestive system: often – nausea, diarrhea, elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (the ACT), dysbiosis; sometimes -poterya of appetite, vomiting, abdominal pain, dyspepsia, increased levels of bilirubin in the blood serum; rarely – diarrhea mixed with blood (in very rare cases, it may be a sign of inflammation of the intestine or pseudomembranous colitis); very rarely – hepatitis. Since the cardiovascular system: rarely – tachycardia, decreased blood pressure; rarely -sosudisty collapse; in some cases – lengthening of the QT interval.On the part of the central and peripheral nervous system: sometimes – headache, dizziness, stiffness, drowsiness, sleep disturbance; rarely – paresthesia in hands, tremors, restlessness, anxiety, convulsions, confusion; very rarely – psychotic reactions such as hallucinations and depression, movement disorders. From the sensory organs: rarely – visual impairment and hearing, smell, taste and tactile sensitivity. On the part of metabolism: rarely – hypoglycemia (manifested by a sharp increase in appetite, nervousness, sweating, tremor); in some cases – the aggravation of existing porphyria. From the urinary system: rarely – increased creatinine level in blood serum; very rarely – the deterioration of renal function up to acute renal failure (eg, due to allergic reactions – interstitial nephritis). From the Musculoskeletal System: rare – the defeat tendons (including tendonitis), joint and muscle pain; very rarely – rupture of the Achilles tendon (may be bilateral in nature and occur within 48 hours after the start of treatment), muscle weakness (of particular importance for patients with myasthenia gravis); in some cases, – rhabdomyolysis. Allergic reactions: sometimes – itching and redness of the skin; rarely – anaphylactic and anaphylactoid reactions (manifested by symptoms such as urticaria, bronchospasm and possible severe asphyxia, and – in rare cases – swelling of the face, throat); very rarely – a sudden drop in blood pressure, anaphylactic shock; in some cases -sindrom Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis (Lyell’s syndrome) and exudative erythema multiforme, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, vasculitis. Skin and subcutaneous tissue: Very rare – photosensitivity. Other: sometimes – asthenia; very rarely – persistent fever, the development of superinfection.
Overdosing Symptoms: nausea, erosive lesions of the mucous membranes of the gastrointestinal tract, the lengthening of the interval QT, confusion, dizziness, seizures. Treatment: symptomatic, dialysis is ineffective.
Interaction with other drugs
increases the half-life of cyclosporin.
Completeness suction reduce drugs which suppress intestinal motility sucralfate, antacids medicines containing aluminum and magnesium salts, and preparations containing iron salts (needs a break between the intake of at least 2 hours). Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, theophylline increase seizure, corticosteroids increase the risk of tendon rupture. Cimetidine and drugs that block tubular secretion, slows down.
levofloxacin treatment is recommended to continue for at least 48-72 hours after normalization of body primobolan only cycle temperature or after reliable eradication of the pathogen. During treatment should avoid sunlight and artificial UV radiation in order to avoid damage to the skin (photosensitivity). If signs of tendinitis, pseudomembranous colitis levofloxacin immediately canceled.
It should be borne in mind that patients with damage to the brain in history (stroke, severe head injury) may develop seizures, with insufficient glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase – the risk of hemolysis.
during the period of treatment must be careful when driving and occupation of other potentially hazardous activities that require high concentration and psychomotor speed reactions. geneza pharmaceuticals bodybuilding supplements uk where to buy steroids in australia vegetarian diet for bodybuilding